FYI — like all multiple choice tests, make sure you select the one that is most correct.

An urban village is best described as a distinctive residential district consisting of aclustering of people who…

Live in high security estates

Have moved from a rural area

Commute to the city centre for work

Share a common culture and lifestyle

An area of 25 hectares in a forest is to be cleared.Which biogeographical process would be most likely to result from this clearing initially?





A government plans to relocate its offices away from the city centre and is encouraging higher density residential estates in the suburbs. Which combination of urban dynamics does this represent?

Urban village and spatial exclusion

Decentralisation and spatial exclusion

Urban village and urban consolidation

Decentralisation and urban consolidation

Which of the following shows a combination of political factors that influence the natureand spatial patterns of global economic activity?

Tariffs and quotas

Consumer demand and resource use

Tax rates and the mobility of labour

Government spending and changing lifestyles

Which of the following lists contains ONLY biogeographical processes operating inecosystems?

Landslides, precipitation, succession

Landslides, run-off, soil erosion

Invasion, precipitation, run-off

Invasion, resilience, succession

An informal economy develops in response to the challenge of employment in a megacity in the developing world. What type of response is this?



NGO support

Self-help project

A woodland area has been affected by extensive agriculture. In the last 60 years, 37 native species have become extinct.Which of the following management strategies could be used to minimise further loss ofspecies?

Reduction in land clearing

Increased usage of fertilisers

Monitoring of water quality

Introduction of exotic species

Which combination of tools can be used to investigate the rate of erosion in an area overtime?

Clinometer and barometer

Climatic data and compasses

Anemometer and water quality testing data

Geographical Information Systems and aerial photographs

Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between people and theenvironment and the effect they have on each other?

Ecological dimension

Spatial inter-dependence

Sustainable development

Environmental constraint

A council requires rooftop and vertical gardens to be installed on all new commercialbuildings. What is the council aiming to achieve?

A reduction in spatial exclusion

Excellence in heritage architecture

The promotion of urban consolidation

An improvement in ecological sustainability

A government has imposed an import quota on all agricultural products toaddress declining domestic employment in the primary sector.Which combination of factors is most likely to have been responsible for the introductionof the quota?

Political and ecological

Political and biophysical

Economic and sociocultural

Economic and environmental

Early Indigenous artefacts have been discovered in a national park. Protecting the area where the artefacts were discovered would help maintain…

Intrinsic values and natural change

Utility values and genetic diversity

Heritage values and intrinsic values

Genetic diversity and heritage values

Which of the following terms is used to describe where things are and why they arethere?

Spatial dimension

Ecological pattern

Environmental impact

Sustainable development

An agricultural industry has started using chemicals to manage a pest infestation. Which of the following is a possible outcome due to sociocultural influences?

Changes in profit for farmers due to higher yields

Food chain disruption due to the use of chemicals

Introduction of an export quota for products treated with chemicals

Decreased sales of products due to a preference for organic products

A geographer is visiting a regional centre to investigate the impact of counterurbanisation. Which of the following techniques would be most useful in gathering primary data for this investigation?

Survey local residents about recent home renovations

Annotate photographs of the commercial district of the regional centre

Interview local shopkeepers about sales performance in the last two years

Collect clippings from local newspapers about improved community infrastructure

Which type of map uses shaded or patterned areas to illustrate themes?





Which of the following terms includes the concepts of location, spatial organisation,spatial differentiation and distribution?

Spatial patterns

Spatial exclusion

Spatial dimension

Spatial inter-dependence

Which of the following best describes the term “exurbanisation”?

The creation of walled estates

A decline in the total population

Affluent people moving to rural areas

A clustering of people with a common culture

Which of the following identifies TWO urban dynamics of change?

Social structure and urban decay

Culture of place and consolidation

Spatial exclusion and sustainability

Decentralisation and urban renewal

What is the best use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS)?

Interpreting census data

Identifying population trends

Analysing and interpreting surveys

Processing and analysing data spatially

Questions were taken from previous HSC Geography exams, available on the NSW Education Standards Authority website.


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